In the tenth year, the Prophet (peace be upon him) announced that he intended to perform hajj; this was the only time that he performed hajj after the Hijrah to Madinah
. The following verse was revealed to him: "…This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion…" (Holy Qur'an, 5:4)
A large gathering of Muslims participated in the event and listened to the farewell sermon given by the Prophet . Some of the scholars wrote books dealing specifically with the farewell pilgrimage.
"Verily, your blood and your property are as sacred and inviolable as the sacredness of this day of yours, in this month of yours, in this land of yours.
"Behold! Everything pertaining to the days of ignorance is under my feet completely abolished. Abolished are also the blood revenges of the days of ignorance. The first claim of ours on blood revenge which I abolish is that of the son of Rabi`ah ibn al Harith. And the usury of the pre-Islamic period is abolished, and the first of our usury I abolish is that of `Abbas ibn `Abd al Muttalib, for it's all abolished.
"Fear God concerning women! Verily, you have taken them on the security of God, and intercourse with them has been made lawful unto you by words of God. You too have rights over them, and they should not allow anyone to sit on your bed whom you do not like. But if they do that, you can chastise them but not severely. Their rights upon you are that you should provide them with food and clothing in a fitting manner.
"I have left among you the Book of God, and if you hold fast to it you would never go astray. And you would be asked about me (on the day of resurrection), (now tell me) what would you say? They (the audience) said: 'We bear witness that you have conveyed (the message,) discharged (the ministry of Prophethood) and given wise (sincere) counsel.' He (the narrator) said: He (the Prophet) then raised his forefinger toward the sky and pointed it at the people (and said): 'O God, bear witness, O God, bear witness.'" [Muslim]
He delivered another sermon at Mina, when he said, "Do not return to Kufr (disbelief,) killing one another, after I am gone." [Bukhari]
From Benefits of this Great Sermon:
1. Prohibition of shedding innocent blood, and taking of wealth without right, which stresses Islam's protection of souls.
2. Nullification of validity of actions of Jahiliyyah (Ignorance Period, before Islam.)
3. Prohibition of taking usury or interest, which is an increase on the principal, whether small or large. Allah, The Most High, says: "But if you repent, you may have your capital." [Holy Qur'an, 2:279]
4. Admonition to fulfill and give women their rights, and to deal with them in goodness. Many authentic Ahadeeth have been narrated in this regard, which elucidate their rights and warn against taking them unjustly.
5. Advice to strongly cling to the Book of Allah, in which lies the honor of Muslims and their victory. Likewise, the order to stick to the Sunnah, which explains the Qur'an. Verily, the reason for Muslims' weakness today is their leaving of judging by the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger. There will be no victory for Muslims except by returning to these two sources.
6. Testimony of the Companions that the Messenger of Allah conveyed the message, discharged his trust and counseled the Ummah.
7. Order to take rituals of Hajj and other rituals from the Prophet's sayings, actions and tacit agreements.
8. Subtle indication that the Prophet's farewell would soon come.
9. Warning against fighting and killing among Muslims, which is disbelief in action, which does not take one out of the fold of Islam.